The Utilization of Red Mud as a Plant Growing Medium with The Addition of Ultisol Soil Material and Compost
The utilization of red mud, which is a residue from the extraction of aluminum from mined bauxite ore, as a plant growing medium, needs to be studied further. There are some chemical aspects that may hinder the growth of, or even cause mortality in, plants such as very high pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and exchangeable Na (Naexch), and very low nutrient elements content. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adding Ultisol soil material, mixed with compost, both soil ameliorating agents, to red mud for use as a growing medium for Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria) seedlings. This study was conducted in two stages, namely: washing of the red mud, and trial planting in the greenhouse using different combinations of the soil ameliorants. Washing of the red mud with tap water was intended to reduce the levels of Na, EC, and pH. Trial planting in the greenhouse was carried out in 2-factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Factor 1 was the proportion of the mixture of Ultisol soil material (sm-Ultisol) and red mud, viz: (1) 1500 g red mud + 0 g sm-Ultisol, (2) 1000 g red mud + 500 g sm-Ultisol, and (3) 750 g red mud + 750 g sm-Ultisol. Factor 2 was the dosage of compost that was mixed with the red mud and sm-Ultisol, namely: 0, 58.6, and 117.2 g/polybag which corresponded to 0, 2.5 and 5 kg/planting hole, respectively. The results of the trial indicated that washing the red mud could reduce the level of EC from 28.70 dS m-1 to 2.68 dS m-1; but it reduced pH and Naexch only from 11.91 and 149.38 cmol(+)kg-1 to become 10.55, and 66.74 cmol(+) kg-1, respectively. A better outcome was obtained after the red mud was washed and then, mixed with sm-Ultisol up to 1:1 proportion in which resulted in lower rates of pH, EC, and Naexch from 10.28, 2.53 dS m-1 and 62.79 cmol(+) kg-1 to 8.65, 2.07 dS m-1 and 45.01 cmol(+) kg-1, respectively. The treatment of using a mixture of 750 g red mud + 750 g sm-Ultisol, and adding compost at 117.18 g/polybag gave the best result in improving the chemical property of the red mud growing medium, and producing the best plant growth among all treatment combinations.
Anderson, J. D., Bell, R. W., & Phillips, I. R. (2011). Bauxite residue fines as an amendment to residue sands to enhance plant growth potential-a glasshouse study. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 11(6), 889–902. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-011-0379-7
Barrow, N. J. (1982). Possibility of using caustic residue from bauxite for improving the chemical and physical properties of sandy soils. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 33(2), 275–285. http://doi.org/10.1071/AR9820275
Chen, C. R., Phillips, I. R., Wei, L. L., & Xu, Z. H. (2010). Behaviour and dynamics of di-ammonium phosphate in bauxite processing residue sand in Western Australia-I. NH3volatilisation and residual nitrogen availability. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 17(5), 1098–1109. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-009-0267-5
Courtney, R. G., & Timpson, J. P. (2005). Nutrient status of vegetation grown in alkaline bauxite processing residue amended with gypsum and thermally dried sewage sludge - A two year field study. Plant and Soil, 266(1–2), 187–194. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-005-0872-0
Courtney, R., Timpson, J. P., & Grennan, E. (2003). Growth of Trifolium pratense in Red Mud Amended With Process Sand, Gypsum and Thermally Dried Sewage Sludge. International Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Environment, 17(4), 227–233. http://doi.org/10.1076/ijsm.22.214.171.12481
Fernandes, S. A. P., Bernoux, M., Cerri, C. C., Feigl, B. J., & Piccolo, M. C. (2002). Seasonal variation of soil chemical properties and CO2 and CH4 fluxes in unfertilized and P-fertilized pastures in an Ultisol of the Brazilian Amazon. Geoderma, 107(3–4), 227–241. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(01)00150-1
Fuller, R. D., & Richardson, C. J. (1986). Aluminate toxicity as a factor controlling plant growth in bauxite residue. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 5(10), 905–915. http://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620051007
Gherardi, M. J., & Rengel, Z. (2001). Bauxite residue sand has the capacity to rapidly decrease availability of added manganese. Plant and Soil, 234(2), 143–151. http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1017992529531
Hassan, W., David, J., & Abbas, F. (2014). Effect of type and quality of two contrasting plant residues on CO2 emission potential of Ultisol soil: Implications for indirect influence of temperature and moisture. Catena, 114, 90–96. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.11.001
Jones, B. E. H., Haynes, R. J., & Phillips, I. R. (2010). Effect of amendment of bauxite processing sand with organic materials on its chemical, physical and microbial properties. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(11), 2281–2288. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.06.013
Jones, B. E. H., Haynes, R. J., & Phillips, I. R. (2011). Influence of organic waste and residue mud additions on chemical, physical and microbial properties of bauxite residue sand. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 18(2), 199–211. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-010-0364-5
Li, J. Y., Wang, N., Xu, R. K., & Tiwari, D. (2010). Potential of industrial byproducts in ameliorating acidity and aluminum toxicity of soils under tea plantation. Pedosphere, 20(5), 645–654. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(10)60054-9
Liu, Y., Lin, C., & Wu, Y. (2007). Characterization of red mud derived from a combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination method. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 146(1–2), 255–261. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.12.015
Lubis, E. M. (2015). Improving The Red Mud Quality Of Bauxite Mining Waste As Growing Media By Application Of Coal Bottom Ash And Humic Materials. Bogor Agricultural University.
Munawar, A. (2011). Kesuburan Tanah dan Nutrisi Tanaman. (A. Munawar, Ed.). Bogor: IPB Press.
Reuter, D. J., & Alston, A. M. (1975). Immobilisation of divalent manganese in calcareous soil. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 41, 61–62.
Santona, L., Castaldi, P., & Melis, P. (2006). Evaluation of the interaction mechanisms between red muds and heavy metals. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 136(2), 324–329. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.12.022
Suchartgul, S., Maneepong, S., & Issarakrisila, M. (2012). Establishment of standard values for nutritional diagnosis in soil and leaves of immature rubber tree. Journal of Rubber Thai, 1, 19–31.
Tan, K. H. (2011). Principles of Soil Chemistry, Fourth Edition. (K. H. Tan, Ed.). New York: CRC Press.
Thiyagarajan, C., Bell, R. W., Anderson, J. D., & Phillips, I. (2011). Zinc forms in compost and red mud-amended bauxite residue sand. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 11(1), 101–114. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-010-0279-2
Thiyagarajan, C., Bell, R. W., Anderson, J., & Phillips, I. R. (2012). Plant-available manganese in bauxite residue sand amended with compost and residue mud. Soil Research, 50(5), 416–423. http://doi.org/10.1071/SR11342
Thiyagarajan, C., Phillips, I. R., Dell, B., & Bell, R. W. (2009). Micronutrient fractionation and plant availability in bauxite-processing residue sand. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 47(5), 518–528. http://doi.org/10.1071/SR08201
Wong, J. W. C., & Ho, G. (1994). Sewage sludge as organic ameliorant for revegetation of fine bauxite refining residue. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 11(1–4), 297–309. http://doi.org/10.1016/0921-3449(94)90097-3
Wong, J. W. C., & Ho, G. E. (1993). Use of waste gypsum in the revegetation on red mud deposits: A greenhouse study. Waste Management & Research, 11(3), 249–256. http://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X9301100306
Xue, S., Zhu, F., Kong, X., Wu, C., Huang, L., Huang, N., & Hartley, W. (2016). A review of the characterization and revegetation of bauxite residues (Red mud). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(2), 1120–1132. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4558-8
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
View SAINS TANAH Stats