Budidaya dan Kandungan Gizi Petai (Parkia speciosa Hassk)

Bambang Pujiasmanto, Sulandjari Sulandjari, Pardono Pardono, Eddy Triharyanto, Sylvatera Ayu Puspitasari, Desy Setyanignrum

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Parkia speciosa Hassk termasuk keluarga Fabaceae yang dikenal “petai” di Indonesia. Tanaman ini dapat tumbuh dengan berbagai jenis kesesuaian lahan. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mereview budidaya petai yaitu perbanyakan petai dengan okulasi dan kandungan gizi petai yang bermafaat untuk kesehatan. Petai diperbanyak melalui penyemaian biji, stek batang dan tunas. Secara vegetatif tanaman ini banyak diperbanyak dengan teknik okulasi. Tanaman hasil okulasi memiliki waktu berbuah lebih cepat, memiliki sifat yang sama dengan induknya dan juga ketinggian tanaman dapat dibuat sesuai keinginan. Pohon induk yang akan diambil mata tunasnya harus berasal dari varietas unggul, produktif, sehat serta terbebas dari serangan hama dan penyakit. Batang bawah yang digunakan untuk okulasi adalah bibit tanaman petai yang berasal dari persemaian biji yang telah berumur sekitar 6 bulan atau ukuran diameter batangnya sudah sebesar pensil. Biji P. speciosa kaya akan karbohidrat (68,3–68,7%), protein (6-27,5%), lemak (1,6-13,3%), serat (1,7-2,0%) dan mineral (0,5-0,8%). P. speciosa mengandung senyawa aktif biologis seperti fenol, favonoid, polisulfida siklik dan fitokimia lainnya. Fitokimia ini bermanfaat dalam hal efek anti-diabetes, anti-mikroba, antioksidan, antihipertensi dan hipoglikemik.


Kata Kunci


Antioksidan, Metabolit sekunder, Okulasi, Petai

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Referensi


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