Hambatan Ekspor Produk Hortikultura: Bagaimana Cara Mengatasinya di Tingkat Usaha Kecil dan Menengah (UKM) ?

Nur Khaririyatun

Sari


Hambatan untuk mengekspor produk hortikultura ke pasar global dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor diantaranya petani selaku produsen produk hortikultura dan pelaku Usaha Kecil Menengah (UKM) yang melakukan proses ekspor. Makalah ini akan fokus pada identifikasi faktor-faktor yang menghambat UKM Indonesia untuk melakukan ekspor produk hortikultura ke pasar global, memberikan solusi dan rekomendasi dalam menghadapi hambatan ini. Makalah ini menggunakan strategi tinjauan pustaka (literature review) untuk mengetahui hambatan UKM Indonesia dalam mengekspor produk hortikultura ke pasar global berdasarkan empat kategori hambatan ekspor, yaitu: hambatan pengetahuan, hambatan sumber daya, hambatan prosedur, dan hambatan dari luar (eksogen). UKM Indonesia menghadapi hambatan ekspor: 1) hambatan pengetahuan seperti kurangnya pengetahuan tentang pasar dan perjanjian expor, kurangnya promosi, masalah standardisasi dan phytosanitary, kurangnya informasi tentang cara mengakses ekspor dan tidak terbiasa dengan prosedur ekspor; 2) hambatan sumber daya seperti kurangnya modal kerja, kurangnya sumber daya manusia, kurangnya relasi perbankan asing, lamanya Return of Investment (ROI) dan biaya keuangan yang tinggi; 3) hambatan prosedur seperti kurangnya infrastruktur, biaya transportasi yang tinggi, kurangnya pasokan listrik, kurangnya panduan tentang transaksi asing untuk UKM dari pemerintah, kurangnya pengaturan bea cukai dan lamanya proses administrasi; dan 4) hambatan dari luar (eksogen) yaitu risiko tinggi valuta asing, keterlambatan pembayaran dari importir, masih banyaknya pungutan, tidak adanya asuransi ekspor, situasi politik, dan fluktuasi ekonomi di pasar sasaran. Solusi untuk UKM adalah dengan meningkatkan koordinasi horisontal dengan petani penghasil produk hortikultura, pemerintah memberikan pinjaman 'lunak', pengembangan kapasitas dan pelatihan untuk pemasaran luar negeri, pemberian motivasi wirausaha, dan diversifikasi produk. Indonesia dan pengimpor harus bekerjasama untuk menghindari penolakan barang dan terlambatnya pembayaran. UKM seharusnya mengikuti Asuransi Kredit Ekspor untuk melindungi dari resiko tidak dibayar oleh importir dan meminimalkan risiko pengiriman. UKM harus meningkatkan produk diversifikasi untuk mengekspor produk olahan dan produk siap saji dalam kemasan. Pemerintah harus meningkatkan pelaksanaan Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu (PHT) untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan fitosanitasi pada produk hortikultura sehingga memenuhi persyaratan dari negara importir, dan memfasilitasi lokakarya tentang peraturan untuk mengekspor ke negara lain dengan pelatih yang berasal dari negara importir.

Kata Kunci


UKM, ekspor, hortikultura, hambatan

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Referensi


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