Distribusi Serapan Pb dan Pertumbuhan Tanaman Sayuran Daun dan Buah pada Pola Tanam Monokultur dan Tumpangsari

Yekti Sri Rahayu, Tatik Wardiyati, Moch. Dawam Maghfoer

Sari


Tanaman sayuran merupakan subyek utama yang rentan terpapar logam Pb dalam dalam praktek budidaya intensif di lahan hortikultura. Sistem penanaman monokultur yang sering diterapkan, menambah potensi tinggi serapan logam Pb pada tanaman sayuran. Percobaan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penerapan pola tanam monokultur dan tumpangsari terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman dan distribusi serapan Pb pada sayuran daun (petsai) dan buah (buncis) yang dikombinasikan dengan tanaman C. juncea L. sebagai tanaman sela. Pelaksanaan percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok yang terdiri dari lima perlakuan yaitu monokultur sayuran petsai, monokultur sayuran buncis, monokultur C. juncea, tumpangsari petsai dengan C. juncea L., dan tumpangsari buncis dengan C. juncea L. Data pengamatan dianalisis ragam, dan dilanjutkan dengan uji orthogonal kontras jika terdapat pengaruh nyata perlakuan. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan tanaman petsai dan buncis yang ditanam monokultur maupun tumpangsari menghasilkan jumlah daun dan panjang tanaman yang tidak berbeda nyata, sementara jumlah daun C. juncea monokultur lebih banyak dibanding yang ditanam tumpangsari. Luas daun petsai monokultur lebih tinggi dibanding yang ditanam tumpangsari, sedangkan luas daun tanaman buncis dan C. juncea yang ditanam monokultur maupun tumpangsari tidak berbeda nyata. Distribusi konsentrasi Pb pada organ tanaman petsai, buncis dan C. juncea menunjukkan hasil yang beragam. Pada petsai yang ditanam tumpangsari, konsentrasi Pb di akar dan batang lebih rendah, sebaliknya di organ daun, konsentrasi Pb lebih besar. Pada buncis tumpangsari, konsentrasi Pb di batang lebih tinggi, namun di daun lebih rendah, sedangkan di akar tidak jauh berbeda antara monokultur dan tumpangsari. Pada C. juncea tumpangsari, konsentrasi Pb di akar, batang dan daun secara umum lebih rendah dibanding C. juncea monokultur. Diperlukan penelitian lanjutan dengan pola tanam berbeda antara sayuran dengan C. juncea L. untuk mengetahui efektivitas penurunan serapan logam pada sayuran.

Kata Kunci


petsai, buncis, monokultur, tumpangsari, Pb

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Referensi


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