Improvement Soil Biology Characteristics of Paddy Field by System of Rice Intensification

Widyatmani Sih Dewi

Abstract


The aim of the research was to test the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method in improving the biological properties of paddy soil. The indicators of improvement were measured by the number of earthworm feces (cast), and the population of some microbial and nutrient content in the cast. The experiments were performed by comparing the three methods, namely: (1) SRI, (2) semi-conventional, and (3) conventional, using Randomized Completely Block Design. Each treatment was repeated nine times. The experiments were performed in the paddy fields belonging to farmers in Sukoharjo, Central Java. The result showed that the SRI (application of 1 tons ha-1 of vermicompost + 50% of inorganic fertilizer dosage) tends to increase the number of earthworms cast. It is an indicator of earthworm activity in soil. Earthworms cast contains more phosphate solubilizing  bacteria (12.98 x 1010cfu) and N content (1.23%) compared to its surrounding soil. There is a close functional relation between earthworms cast with total tiller number. SRI method is better than the other two methods to improve the biological characteristics of paddy soil that has the potential to maintain the sustainability of soil productivity.

Keywords


earthworms cast; SRI; paddy; soil microorganism; conventional system

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anugrah, I.S., Sumedi, dan Wardana, I.P. Gagasan dan Implementasi System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Dalam Kegiatan Budidaya Padi Ekologis. 2008. Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian. Volume 6 No.1, Maret 2008: 75-99.

Arancon NQ, Edwards CA, Yardim EN, Oliver TJ, Byrne RJ, Keeney G. 2007. Suppression of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), mealy bug (Pseudococcus sp) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations and damage by vermicomposts. Crop Prot 26:29–39

Brady, N. C. 1990. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 10th Ed. Macmillan Publ. Co. New York.

Brown GB and Doube BM. 2004. Functional interactions between earthworms, microorganisms, organic matter, and plants. Di dalam: Edwards CA (ed). Earthworm Ecology. edisi ke 2. Boca Ratoon: CRC Press. Hlm: 213-240

Carver D and Cristie B. 2008. The Biology and business of rising earthworms. Wormfarming secret.com.

Chaoui HI, Zibilske LM, and Ohno T. 2003. Effects of earthworm casts and compost on soil microbial activity and plant nutrient availability. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 35: 295–302

Ferreras L,Gomez E, Toresani E, Firpo I, Rotondo R. 2006. Effect of organic amendments on some physical, chemical and biological properties in a horticultural soil. BioresTechnol 97:635–640

Gani A, Kadir TS, Jatiharti A, Wardhana IP, Las I, Research Institute for Rice, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development. 2002. The System of Rice Intensification in Indonesia. Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development; http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri; 607-255-0831; ciifad@cornell.edu

Gillings. M and Holmes. A. 2004. Plant Microbiology. Garland Science/BIOS Scientific Publishers. Australia.

Jackson L, Bawa K, Pascual U, and Perrings C. 2005. AgroBIODIVERSITY: A new science agenda for biodiversity in support of sustainable agroecosystems. DIVERSITAS Report No.4. 40 pp.

Janagan K, Sathish V, Vijayakumar A. 2003. A sustainable system for solid waste treatment – Vermiculture” Di dalam: Bunch MJ, Suresh VM, Kumaran TV (ed). Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Environment and Health,Chennai, India, 15-17 December, 2003. Chennai: Department of Geography, University of Madras and Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University. Pp:175 – 185.

Kaushik P and Garg VK. 2004. Dynamics of biological and chemical parameters during vermicomposting of solid textile mill sludge mixed with cow dung and agricultural residues. Biores Technol 94:203–209

Kumar PR, Jayaram A, and Somashekar RK. 2009. Assessment of the performance of different compost models to manage urban household organic solid wastes. Clean Techn Environ Policy 11:473–484.

Lavelle P and Spain AV. 2001. Soil Ecology. Kluwer Academie Publisher. New York.

Las I, Subagyono K, and Setyanto AP. 2006. Isu dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan dalam Revitalisasi Pertanian. Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian 25 (3): 173-193.

Lee, K.E. 1985. Earthworms, Their Ecology and Relationships with Soils and Land Use. Academic Press. London.

McLeod M. 2009. Upland & dryland agricultural constraints and opportunities. Paper presented at International Seminar ‘Upland for Food Security’ , 7-8 Nov. 2009. Faculty of Agriculture, Jendral Soedirman University. Purwakerta, Central Java, Indonesia.

Mitchell A and Alter D. 1993. Suppression of labile aluminium in acidic soils by the use of vermicompost extract. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 24:1171–1181.

Mutakin, J. 2009. Budidaya Dan Keunggulan Padi Organik Metode SRI (System of Rice Intensification). http://www.google.co.id/search?hl=id&q=System+of+Rice+Intensification+di+Indonesia&meta=&aq=f&oq. Diunduh 10 Februari 2009.

Ndegwa PM and Thompson SA. 2001. Integrating composting and vermicomposting in the treatment of bioconversion of biosolids. Biores Technol 76:107–112.

Palungkun R. 1999. Sukses Bertenak Cacing Tanah. Penebar Swadaya.Jakarta

Paul, E.A. and Clark, F. E. 1989. Soil microbiology and Biochemistry. Academic Press Inc., Toronto.

Scotti R, Bonanomi G, Scelza R, Zoina A, Rao MA. 2015. Organic amendments as sustainable tool to recovery fertility in intensive agricultural systems. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 15 (2): 333-352.

Schulte, E. E and K. A. Kelling. 2006. Understanding Plant Nutrients. U W Extension. Wiscosin.

Simanungkalit RDM, Didi Ardi Suriadikarta, Rasti Saraswati, Diah Setyorini, dan Wiwik Hartatik. 2006. Pupuk Organik Dan Pupuk Hayati. Balai Besar Litbang Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Bogor

Sinha, R. K., Herat, S., Agarwal, S., Asadi, R. and Carretero, E. 2002. Vermiculture and waste management: study of action of earthworms Eisinia foetida, Eudrilus euginae and Perionyx excavates on biodegradation of some community wastes in India and Australia. The Environmentalist, 22, 261–268, 2002.

Susilo, F.X., Neutel, A.M., Van Noordwijk, M., Hairiah, K., Brown, G. and Swift, M. 2004. Soil Biodiversity and Food Webs. In: Van Noordwijk, M., Cadish, G. and Ong, C.K. (Eds.) Below-ground Interactions in tropical agroecosytems. CABI Wallingford, UK. Pp. 285-307.

Swift MJ and Anderson JM. 1993. Biodiversity and Ecosysetem Function in Agricultural Systems. In: E.D. Schulze and H.A. Monney (Eds.). Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function. Springer. Berlin. Pp. 15-41.

Syam M. 2006. Kontroversi System of Rice Intensification(SRI) di Indonesia. Iptek Tanaman Pangan No. 1 – 2006. Hal 30-40.

Syam M. 2006. Kontroversi system of rice intensification (SRI) di Indonesia. Buletin Iptek Tanaman Pangan, 1(1).

Syamsiyah J, Dewi WS, Widijanto H dan Mujiyo.2007. Intergrasi Padi-Sapi sebagai Upaya Reklamasi Lahan Sawah Berkadar Bahan Organik Rendah di Sub DAS Samin. PHK A2 Jurusan Ilmu Tanah. Tahun Anggaran 2007.

Tangketasik A, Wikarniti NM, Soniari NN dan Narka IW. 2012. Kadar Bahan Organik Tanah pada Tanah Sawah dan Tegalan di Bali serta Hubungannya dengan Tekstur Tanah. AGROTROP, 2(2): 101- 107.

Tomati U, Galli E, Grappelli A, Dihena. 1990. Effect of earthworm casts on protein synthesis in radish (Raphanus sativum) and lettuce (Lactuva sativa) seedlings. Biol Fertil Soil 9:288–289.

Theunissen J, Ndakidemi PA, and Laubscher CP. 2010. Potential of vermicompost produced from plant waste on the growth and nutrient status in vegetable production. International Journal of the Physical Sciences Vol. 5(13): 1964-1973.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15608%2Fstjssa.v12i2.475

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

View SAINS TANAH Stats