IMPACT OF EL NINO PHENOMENON ON PADDY FIELD AT SERAM ISLAND (CASE STUDY: EL NINO 2015-2016)
One of the global climate phenomenon's which have great influence on Indonesia region, especially eastern Indonesia, both in the atmosphere and on the sea is ENSO where the circulation contained a phenomenon which we called El Nino. El Nino is a phenomenon of the warm column at western Pacific move to central also eastern Pacific region so that the sea surface temperature become warmer than normal values while in the western part of Pacific is cooler than the normal values. This condition characterized by the weakening of trade winds which indicate decreasing moisture supply from the central and eastern Pacific to the western Pacific region. So naturally with the cooling of western pacific sea surface temperature (Indonesia), reduced evaporation and a minimal supply of water vapor from central and eastern Pacific region hence the rain clouds growth process on Indonesian territory become inactive and tend to diminish as the strengthening intensity of the occurred El Nino. Global warming influenced on these incidents is that faster energy collected in the warm column. By mid-2015 until the beginning of 2016, Indonesia suffered the El Nino phenomena which are very significant to the agricultural sector, especially in Seram Island inside Maluku region. This condition causes the paddy field on Seram island areas affected by drought and crop failure. Based on calculations using land water balance, seen the periods of groundwater deficiencies took place in the late period of 2015 until early 2016. Therefore farmers must understand the science knowledge and clear information about El Nino phenomenon to do adaptation and mitigation as well as pattern also the determination of early season crops adapts to the climatological conditions that will happen.
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